• John
  • Felde
  • University of Maryland
  • USA

Latest Posts

  • USA

  • James
  • Doherty
  • Open University
  • United Kingdom

Latest Posts

  • Andrea
  • Signori
  • Nikhef
  • Netherlands

Latest Posts

  • CERN
  • Geneva
  • Switzerland

Latest Posts

  • Aidan
  • Randle-Conde
  • Université Libre de Bruxelles
  • Belgium

Latest Posts

  • Vancouver, BC
  • Canada

Latest Posts

  • Laura
  • Gladstone
  • MIT
  • USA

Latest Posts

  • Steven
  • Goldfarb
  • University of Michigan

Latest Posts

  • Fermilab
  • Batavia, IL
  • USA

Latest Posts

  • Seth
  • Zenz
  • Imperial College London
  • UK

Latest Posts

  • Nhan
  • Tran
  • Fermilab
  • USA

Latest Posts

  • Alex
  • Millar
  • University of Melbourne
  • Australia

Latest Posts

  • Ken
  • Bloom
  • USA

Latest Posts

Posts Tagged ‘Feynman rule’

More Feynman Diagrams

Sunday, March 7th, 2010

In a previous post we learned how to draw Feynman diagrams by drawing lines and connecting them. We started with a set of rules for how one could draw diagrams:


We could draw lines with arrows or wiggly lines and we were only permitted to join them using intersections (vertices) of the above form. These are the rules of the game. We then said that the arrowed lines are electrons (if the arrow goes from left to right) and positrons (if the arrow points in the opposite direction) while the wiggly lines are photons. The choice of rules is what we call a “model of particle interactions,” and in particular we developed what is called quantum electrodynamics, which is physics-talk for “the theory of electrons and photons.”

Where did it all come from?

One question you could ask now is: “Where did these rules come from? Why do they prohibit me from drawing diagrams with three wiggly lines intersecting?”

The short answer is that those are just the rules that we chose. Technically they came from a more mathematical formulation of the theory. It is not obvious at all, but the reason why we only allow that one particular vertex is that it is the only interaction that both respects the (1) spacetime (“Lorentz”) symmetry and (2) internal ‘gauge’ symmetry of the theory. This is an unsatisfying answer, but we’ll gradually build up more complicated theories that should help shed some light on this. Just for fun, here’s the mathematical expression that encodes the same information as the Feynman rules above: [caution: I know this is an equation, but do not be scared!]


Without going into details, the Psi represents the electron (the bar turns it into a positron) while the A is the photon. The number e is the ‘electric coupling’ and determines the charge of the electron. Because equations can be intimidating, we won’t worry about them here. In fact our goal will be to go in the opposite direction: we will see that we can learn quite a lot by only looking at Feynman diagrams and never doing any complicated math. The important point is that our cute rules for how to connect lines really captures most of the physics encoded in these ugly equations.

Now a quick parenthetical note because I’m sure some of you are curious: In the equation above, the partial is a kind of derivative. Derivatives tell us about how things change, and in fact this term tells us about how the electron propagates through space. The e?A term tells us how the photon couples to the electron. The m term is the electron’s mass. We’ll have more to say about this down the road when we discuss the Higgs boson. Finally, the Fs are the “field strength” of the photon: it is the analog of the derivative term for the electron and tells us how the photon propagates through space. In fact, these F’s encode the electric and magnetic fields.

[Extra credit for advanced readers: notice that the electron mass term looks like the Feynman rule for a two-electron interaction with coupling strength m. You can see this by looking at the electron-electron-photon term and removing the photon.]

What we can learn from just looking at the rules

We learned that we could use our lines and intersections to draw diagrams that represent particle interactions. If you haven’t already, I encourage you to grab a piece of scratch paper and play with these Feynman rules. A good game to play is asking yourself whether a certain initial state can ever give you a certain final state. Here are a few exercises:

  1. You start with one electron. Can you ever end up with a final state positron? [Answer: yes! Draw one such diagram.]
  2. If you start with one electron, can you ever end up with more final state positrons than final state electrons? [Answer: no! Draw diagrams until you’re convinced it’s impossible.]
  3. Draw a diagram where an electron and a photon interact to produce 3 electrons, 2 positrons, and 2 photons. Draw a few more to get a feel for how many different ways one can do this.
  4. If you start with a photon, can you end up with a final state of only multiple photons? [This is actually a trick question; the answer is no but this is a rather subtle quantum mechanical effect that’s beyond our scope. You should be able to draw a diagram think that the answer is ‘yes.’]

So here’s what you should get out of this: Feynman rules are a nice way to learn what kinds of particle interactions can and cannot occur. (e.g. questions 1 and 2) In fact, the lesson you should have gleaned is that there is a conservation of electric charge in each diagram coming to the conservation of electric charge in each intersection. You can also see how complicated interactions can be reduced to simple interactions with “virtual particles” (intermediate particles that don’t appear in the initial state). We are able to do this simply by stating the Feynman rules of our theory and playing with drawings. No math or fancy technical background required.

Summing diagrams: an analogy to summing paths

There’s a lot more one could do with Feynman diagrams, such as calculating probabilities for interactions to occur. Actually doing this requires more formal math and physics background, but there’s still a lot that we can learn conceptually.

For example, there were two simple diagram that we could draw that represented the scattering of an electron and a positron off of one another:


We recall that we can describe these interactions in words by “reading” them from left to right:

  • The first diagram shows an electron and a positron annihilating into a photon, which then “pair produces” into another electron and positron.
  • The second diagram shows an electron and a positron interacting by sending a photon between them. This is definitely a different process since the electron and positron never actually touch, unlike the first diagram.

Remember that these diagrams are actually shorthand for complex numbers. The numbers represent the probability for each these processes to occur.  In order to calculate the full probability that an electron and a positron will bounce off of one another, we have to add together these contributions as complex numbers.

What does this mean? This is just quantum mechanics at work! Recall another old post about the double slit experiment. We learned that quantum mechanics tells us that objects take all paths between an initial observed state to a final observed state. Thus if you see a particle at point A, the probability for it to show up at point B is given by the sum of the probability amplitudes for each intermediate path.

The sum of diagrams above is a generalization of the exact same idea. Our initial observed state is an electron and a positron. Each of these have some fixed [and observed] momentum. If you want to calculate the probability that these would interact and produce an electron and positron of some other momentum (e.g. they bounce off each other and head off in opposite directions), then one not only has to sum over the different intermediate paths, but also the different intermediate interactions.

Again, a pause for the big picture: we’re not actually going to calculate anything since for most people, this isn’t as fun as drawing diagrams. But even just describing what one would calculate, we can see how things reduce to our simple picture of quantum mechanics: the double slit experiment. (more…)


Let’s draw Feynman diagrams!

Sunday, February 14th, 2010

Greetings! This post turned into a multi-part ongoing series about the Feynman rules for the Standard Model and a few of its extensions. I’ll use this first post as an index for all of the parts of the series.

  1. Let’s draw Feynman diagrams! (this post)
  2. More Feynman diagrams.
  3. Introducing the muon.
  4. The Z boson and resonances.
  5. Neutrinos.
  6. The W boson, mixing things up.
  7. Meet the quarks.
  8. World of glue.
  9. QCD and confinement.
  10. Known knowns of the Standard Model. (summary)
  11. When Feynman Diagrams Fail.
  12. An idiosyncratic introduction to the Higgs.
  13. A diagrammatic hint of masses from the Higgs
  14. Higgs and the vacuum: Viva la “vev”
  15. Helicity, Chirality, Mass, and the Higgs
  16. The Birds and the Bs
  17. The spin of gauge bosons
  18. Who ate the Higgs?
  19. Unitarization of vector boson scattering
  20. Private lives of Standard Model particles (summary)

There are few things more iconic of particle physics than Feynman diagrams. These little figures of squiggly show up prominently on particle physicists’ chalkboards alongside scribbled equations. Here’s a ‘typical’ example from a previous post.

The simplicity of these diagrams has a certain aesthetic appeal, though as one might imagine there are many layers of meaning behind them. The good news is that’s it’s really easy to understand the first few layers and today you will learn how to draw your own Feynman diagrams and interpret their physical meaning.

You do not need to know any fancy-schmancy math or physics to do this!

That’s right. I know a lot of people are intimidated by physics: don’t be! Today there will be no equations, just non-threatening squiggly lines. Even school children can learn how to draw Feynman diagrams (and, I hope, some cool science). Particle physics: fun for the whole family. 🙂

For now, think of this as a game. You’ll need a piece of paper and a pen/pencil. The rules are as follows (read these carefully):

  1. You can draw two kinds of lines, a straight line with an arrow or a wiggly line:

    You can draw these pointing in any direction.
  2. You may only connect these lines if you have two lines with arrows meeting a single wiggly line.

    Note that the orientation of the arrows is important! You must have exactly one arrow going into the vertex and exactly one arrow coming out.
  3. Your diagram should only contain connected pieces. That is every line must connect to at least one vertex. There shouldn’t be any disconnected part of the diagram.

    In the image above the diagram on the left is allowed while the one on the right is not since the top and bottom parts don’t connect.
  4. What’s really important are the endpoints of each line, so we can get rid of excess curves. You should treat each line as a shoelace and pull each line taut to make them nice and neat. They should be as straight as possible. (But the wiggly line stays wiggly!)

That’s it! Those are the rules of the game. Any diagram you can draw that passes these rules is a valid Feynman diagram. We will call this game QED. Take some time now to draw a few diagrams. Beware of a few common pitfalls of diagrams that do not work (can you see why?):

After a while, you might notice a few patterns emerging. For example, you could count the number of external lines (one free end) versus the number of internal lines (both ends attached to a vertex).

  • How are the number of external lines related to the number of internal lines and vertices?
  • If I tell you the number of external lines with arrows point inward, can you tell me the number of external lines with arrows pointing outward? Does a similar relation hole for the number of external wiggly lines?
  • If you keep following the arrowed lines, is it possible to end on some internal vertex?
  • Did you consider diagrams that contain closed loops? If not, do your answers to the above two questions change?

I won’t answer these questions for you, at least not in this post. Take some time to really play with these diagrams. There’s a lot of intuition you can develop with this “QED” game. After a while, you’ll have a pleasantly silly-looking piece of paper and you’ll be ready to move on to the next discussion:

What does it all mean?