Particle physics is awesome enough all by itself. It gets even more awesome when we see the spin off technologies that have been developed over the decades!
The basics of radiation and hadron therapy are summed up quite well on wikipedia:
Images taken from:
Bragg peak: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BraggPeak.png
Paul Scherrer Institut gantry: http://www.psi.ch/history-of-psi
Radiative therapy dose map: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360301607005068
Tags: advent calendar 2012